From the first scientific toys to modern cinema, they rely on retinal persistence to make us believe that a series of static images are in motion.
In 1834, the English mathematician William George Horner proposed an apparatus based on the Plateau and Stampfer phenachitiscope (1830). It eliminated the need for the mirror and allowed multiple people to enjoy the instrument and view the animated images at the same time - a breakthrough over the single viewer allowed by the former.
You have to place the strip, turn the drum and look through the slots, to perceive the "movement" of the images.
Includes 20 strips of animated images.